Instruments

Atmosphere/Climate
Measurements
Instrument
Photos
Cloud Cover/Type Cloud chart
Precipitation Liquid Rain gauge
Solid Snow board, Rain gauge, Snow depth pole
Precipitation pH pH indicator paper
pH pen, two buffer (7 and 4 or 10)
pH meter, three pH buffers (7, 4, and 10)
Air Temperature: Maximum, Minimum, and Current Maximum / Minimum thermometer, Calibration thermometer, Instrument shelter
Hydrology
Measurements
Instrument
Photos
Transparency Deep Water Sites Only Secchi disk, 5 m rope
Surface Water Turbidity tube
Water Temperature Organic liquid filled thermometer
Water pH pH indicator paper
pH pen, two buffer (7 and 4 or 10)
pH meter, three pH buffers (7, 4, and 10)
Electrical Conductivity – Fresh Water Sites Only Total dissolved solids (conductivity) tester, Calibration solution
Alkalinity Water alkalinity kit
Soil
Measurements
Instrument
Photos
Soil Characterization – Field Horizon Depth, Structure, Colour, Consistence, Texture, Carbonates Meter stick, Colour chart, Sample cans, shovel or Auger
Soil Characterization – LabBulk Density, Particle Size, Particle Density, soil pH Drying oven, 100 mL Graduated cylinder, 500 mL clear plastic graduated cylinder, Hydrometer, Thermometer, Dispersing solution, pH paper or meter
Soil Moisture Balance, meter stick, drying oven, Sample cans, 50 m tape measure
Soil Temperature Soil thermometer
Land Cover / Biology
Measurements
Instrument
Photos
Land cover mapping Remote sensing image, MultiSpec software
Species Identification Dichotomous keys
BiometryTree Circumference, Tree Height, Canopy Cover, Ground Cover Clinometer and Densiometer (both may be student – made, 50 m tape measure
GPS
Measurements
Instrument
Photos
Latitude and Longitude of study sites GPS receiver